Stress Management (2)

Stress Management (2)

Learning objective: After reading this information sheet you must be able to learn about stress management.


Sources Of Stress & Warning Signs:

  • Most stressful situation fall into one of the 3 categories.
  • They include
  • harm and loss
  • Threat
  • Challenge


Harm and loss – are death of a loved one, loss of personal property, physical assault, physical injury, and severe loss of self esteem.


Threat Situation – May be real or perceived as menacing and can range from being caught in traffic, to being unable to perceive an event. Threatening events tax a person’s ability to deal with everyday life. Threat stressors are any that result in anger, hostility, frustration, or depression.


Challenge Situation – are catalysts for either growth or pain. These stressors often involve major life changes and include such events as taking new job, leaving home, graduating from college and getting married.


Positive Outcomes Of Stress



  • enhance creativity
  • enhance thinking ability
  • enhance motivation


  • Sense of control
  • Responsiveness to environment
  • Improved interpersonal relationship
  • Improved moral


  • high energy level
  • increased stamina
  • flexibility of muscle & joints
  • freedom from stress related disease


Negative Results Of Distress



  • poor memory
  • inability to concentrate
  • low creativity
  • poor self-esteem
  • low self-esteem


  • flushed face
  • cold hands
  • gas
  • rapid breathing
  • shortness of breath
  • dry mouth


  • irritability
  • disorganization
  • conflict
  • mood swing
  • chronic sleep pattern
  • acid stomach
  • over indulgence in alcohol, drugs, food


Long Term Effects:

  • bouts of depressions
  • mild paranoia
  • low tolerance for ambiguity
  • forgetfulness
  • inability to make decision/quick to make decision
  • hypertension
  • coronary disease
  • ulcers
  • migraine/tension headache
  • stroke
  • allergies
  • overweight/underweight
  • drug abuse
  • excessive smoking
  • overreaction to mild work pressure


Physiologic Response To Stress:

  • Each time a stressful event occurs, a series of neurological and hormonal messages are sent throughout the body.
  • Nervous system as a reciprocal network that sends messages between the awareness of the brain and the organs & muscle of the body.
  • Part of this system is referred to as the LIMBIC SYSTEM.


Limbic System- contains center for emotions, memory, learning relay, and hormone production the pituitary glands, thalamus and hypothalamus.


  • Stressor is encountered the body sends a message to the brain via the nervous system.
  • The brain then synthesizes the message and determines whether it is valid or not.
  • If a message is not verified by the brain as being threatening , the limbic system overrides the initial response and the body continues to function normally.
  • If the initial response is translated as accurate ( a stressor) the body respond with some emotions, (fear, joy, terror) and the hypothalamus begin to act.


Health Effects Of Stress:

  • any stressful situation takes its toll on the human body.
  • Stress can be a primary enemy of overall health and a major contributor to disease.
  • Because of stress affects the immune system the body become more susceptible to a multitude of ailments, from colds to cancer, respiratory condition, hbp, headache, migraine, stomach ache, diarrhea, heartburn, gastritis.
  • Stress decreases saliva in the mouth, often making speaking awkward.



Self Esteem And Stress

  • includes beliefs & attitude about changes, personal talent, skills, and the activity to deal with the changes and challenges that occurs in life.
  • The most influential factor in determining response to stress may be peoples own perceptions of themselves.


Personality And Stress:

  • 2 physicians, Friedman & Roseman, have written extensively about personality, and stress.
  • They described two stress related personality types the A & B.


Type A – a personality is characterized by an urgent sense of time, impatience, competitiveness, aggressiveness, insecurity over status & inability to relax.

  • People with type A behavior characteristics are likely to be highly stressed


Type B – people who have a unhurried approach to their lives.

  • does not become as upset at losing or not attaining a goal.
  • They set more realistic goals


Guidelines For Dealing With Stress:

  1. Schedule time effectively – practice good time management
  2. Set priorities – it is necessary to know what is important to you.
  3. Established realistic goals – goal must be achievable, do not establish impossible expectation.
  4. see yourself as achieving the goal – visualize your self as being successful.. Go over your mind what it will look and feel like to accomplish the goal.
  5. Give yourself a break – take time every day to exercise & relax.


Relaxation Techniques:

  1. deep breathing
  2. progressive muscle relaxation
  3. autogenics – use self suggestion to produce a relaxation response.
  4. Meditation
  5. Visualization
  6. Massage therapy
  7. Music
  8. Humor
  9. Time management
  10. Exercise

Client : Personality Development

Date : 15 Aug 2023

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