Stress Management (1)

Stress Management (1)

Learning objective: After reading this information sheet you must be able to learn about stress.



  • force that induces bodily or mental tension.
  • profoundly affects people’s lives
  • everyone lives with stress – whether a student, business person, parent or athletes.
  • Stress is frequently viewed as an enemy( this is a misconception)
  • Stress is often neither positive nor negative, how people deal with stress is what determines its effect on their lives.
  • It is often said that stress is one the most destructive elements in people’s daily lives, but that is only a half truth.
  • The effect of stress can be either positive or negative.
  • Positively viewed, stress can be a motivation for an improved quality of life.
  • Viewed negatively, it can be destructive.


What is Stress?


  • Hans Selye was the first to define the term stress as the ‘nonspecific response of the body to any demands made upon it”.
  • It can be characterized by diverse reactions, such as muscle tension, shallow breathing, giddiness and even joy.
  • Using Selye’s definition, stress can accompany pleasant or unpleasant



  • This referred to stress judged as “ good”. This form of stress is the force that serves to initiate physiological growth.
  • It provides the experience of pleasure, adds meaning to life, and foster an attitude that tries to find positive solution to even complex problems.
  • Eutress can accompany a birth, graduation, a new car, a new friend, accomplishment of a difficult task & success in an area that has previously produced anxiety;.



  • a stress that results in negative responses.
  • Unchecked, negative stress can interfere with the physiological and psychological functioning of the body and may ultimately result in disease or difficulty.
  • stress also provides human with the ability to respond to challenges or dangers.
  • It is vital to self protection & also serves as a motivator that enhances human ability.

















Physical                                       Social                                           Intellectual                

Bacteria                                   Embarrassment                            Mental fatigue

Drugs                                     Teasing                                         Overload

Smoking                                  Ridicule                                         Frustration

Lack of sleep                           Arguments                                    Mentally stagnant

Injury                                       Lack of social interaction

Sedentary life                          rejection


Emotional                                          Spiritual                                 Environment

Uncontrolled anger                 (Values or morals)                              Noise

Unexpressed anger                Guilt                                                     Overcrowding

Inability to love                        Moral conflicts                                    Poverty

Lack of love                             Lack of purpose in being                    Temperature

Poor self-esteem                    Lack of philosophy of life




  • is any physical, psychological or environmental event or condition that initiates the stress response.


  • what is considered a stressor for one person may not be a stressor for another.
  • Speaking in front of a group may be stimulating for one person and terrifying for
  • Some people experience extreme test anxiety, whereas others do not.
  • Fortunately, the stress response is not a genetic trait, and because it is a response to external conditions, it is subject to personal control.
  • A person may not avoid taking a test, but techniques & precaution can lessen the effects of the stress.

Ex. Deep breathing several times before a test will, help dissipates anxiety

  • Our body is constantly attempting to maintain a physiological balance, this balance is referred to as “Homeostasis”.
  • Any event or circumstances that causes a disruption (stressor) in your body’s homeostasis requires some type of adaptive behavior. Whether a stressor is perceived as positive or negative, the body responds with the same 3 stages process.
  • This series of changes is known as the General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS).


3 Phases:


  1. Alarm Phase
  • occurs when homeostasis is initially disturbed.
  • Brain perceives a stressor and prepares the body to deal with it.
  • A response sometimes referred to as the FIGHT or FLIGHT syndrome.
  • Subconscious appraisal of the stressor result in an emotional reaction
  • Emotional reaction/response stimulates a physical reaction that is associated with stress.

S/S muscle becomes tense, stomach tightening, heart rate increase, mouth becoming dry, palms of the hands sweating.

  1. Resistance Stage
  • The body meets the perceived challenge through increased strength, endurance, sensory capacities, and sensory acuity.
  • Hormonal secretion regulates the body’s response to a stressor
  • Only after meeting and satisfying the demands of a stressful situation can the internal activities of the body return to normal.
  1. Exhaustion Stage
  • When stressors become chronic or pervasive, the third phase exhaustion is reached.
  • Energy stores have been depleted.
  • Fortunately, the effects of stressor can be completely reversed when adequate management techniques are initiated.

Client : Personality Development

Category :

Date : 15 Aug 2023

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